The Age of Reason

The Enlightenment, an intellectual and philosophical movement that emphasized the power of reason, dominated Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the Age of Science, which marked a radical change in scientific thought during the 16th and 17th centuries, many Enlightenment men were equipped with scientific ideologies. Science made people aware of the natural law and their natural…

What it Means to Be Happy

If there’s something that we all have in common as humans, it’s our search for happiness. We go above and beyond to make sure we reach that point where we can finally say that we’re happy. But in most cases, we do not even know what that even means. There is a common misconception that…

Perceptions as Representations

Sense-perception has always been an interest of the philosophers. A prominent problem is the problem of perception, which is created by the ideas of illusion and hallucination: if it is possible to have this sort of error, how can perception be what we understand it to be? When we reflect on the causal facts of…

The Basis of Political Equality

According to Bernard Williams, political equality can be addressed in two aspects, in terms of factuality and in terms of principles. The statement of fact is whether human beings are in fact equal, regardless of the circumstances. On the other hand, the statement of principles states that people should be treated equally. It is essential…

The Problem of Indifference in Relationships

The main principle in Stoicism is that man shares the common rationality of the divine and suggests that the virtuous live in harmony with reason that governs their life, and are not concerned with external things that are beyond one’s control. Epictetus distinguishes between things that are within our control, such as perspective, desire, and…

Tragic Pleasure

Consider one of the most classical and famous tragic plays written by Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, where two star-crossed lovers fought against all odds to protect their love from a family feud. They faced numerous obstacles, struggled immensely, and loved each other so much that they actually sacrificed themselves for this love… Why do we…